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          Slow growth of rural economy has increased distress migration and created ever increasing slums in urban India. All colonial language countries witness distress migration from rural areas as a result of failed rural industrialisation and skewed structural change. Big cities continue to attract people from distress areas leading to urban unrest and regionalism.

Ten cities in India are listed in the top 100 largest cities in the world. One characteristic feature is the highest density of population observed in Indian cities and cities in sub Saharan Africa. The density of population in Indian cities is the highest in the world indicating cramped housing conditions. Census 2001 reveals that nearly half of the population lives in slums.

The common trend is that all the cities in native language countries are neat, prosperous and clean. Shanghai is ahead of Mumbai, Jakarta is progressive than Karachi, Bangkok is better than Manila, Taipei is innovative than Kuala Lumpur. (One exception to the trend is Kuala Lumpur which was also the most prosperous city during 1940s and attracted workers from all over the Asia. It is a city dominated by the Chinese who comprises 43 % of the population. Not surprisingly the largest selling newspaper is a Chinese news paper and business books in Chinese outsell English.)

 Increased urbanisation promotes English in India. Press is the most important instrument of opinion making and change. It is divided and divides the elite and masses in India. But hardly any English newspaper is sold in Shanghai, Seoul or Taipei except to employees in embassies. Economic inequality between the masses and the elite is aggravated by unequal access to education and employment in India wherein English is the dividing line between various classes and rural and urban areas.

Increased urbanisation means more and more people are living in urban areas. If you don’t believe in the statistics, please take a visual tour of the cities in native language countries and Anglophone countries to witness the horrendous impact of linguistic imperialism.




Chinese Cities 


Indian Cities

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Shanghai: Business Capital of China

Mumbai: Commercial Capital of India


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Beijing Railway Station


Mumbai Railway Station

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Beijing-Capital of China    DELHI-Capital of India  

Beijing to Shanghai

New Delhi Train Station

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Dalian - City of Fashion and IT  

Bangalore Pride

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Guangzhou: Rich Heritage

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Read Malayalathinde Bhaavi-Bhasha Asoothranavum, Maanava Vikasanavum” (The Future of malayalam - Language Planning and Human Devolopment) in Malayalam written by K. Sethu Raman published by Maathrubhoomi Books for further details and analysis.